the Arctic 1825: Anglo-Russian Convention
Britain and the United States followed their 1818 treaty by defining their boundaries with Spain and Russia. The Spanish, with their American empire already crumbling, abandoned their claim to the Pacific Northwest, while the Russians agreed to withdraw from Oregon Country and restrict themselves to what is now Alaska. However limited knowledge of the region meant that the southern border between Russian and British America was poorly defined and would later lead to the Alaska boundary dispute.
22 Feb 1819 Adams–Onís Treaty▲
The Adams-Onís Treaty was signed between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain, following its negotiation by John Quincy Adams, the Secretary of State under US President James Monroe, and the Spanish foreign minister Luis de Onís y González-Vara, on behalf of King Ferdinand VII. The treaty ceded Florida to the US and defined the boundary between the US and New Spain (now Mexico) to extend from the Sabine River in the Gulf of Mexico to the 42nd parallel north and the Pacific.
May 1819-Dec 1820 Parry’s 1819-1820 expedition▲
The British explorer William Parry, with ships HMS Hecla and HMS Griper, traveled from England to Lancaster Sound and the North American Arctic, reaching as far as Melville Island and a record 113°46’W before turning back due to ice.
9 Oct 1820 Nova Scotia-Cape Breton merger▲
The British Colony of Cape Breton was merged for the second time with the British Colony of Nova Scotia, ending Cape Breton Island’s existence as a separate colony.
Jul 1821 North West Company Merger Agreement▲
The British government forced the North West Company to sign a merger agreement with the Hudson’s Bay Company, following continued hostilities between the two companies. The merger amalgamated the 97 trading posts of the North West Company with the 76 trading posts of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
17 Apr 1824 Russo-American Treaty▲
The Convention Between the United States of America and His Majesty the Emperor of All the Russias, Relative to Navigating, Fishing, Etc., in the Pacific Ocean was signed between the Russian Empire and the United States of America in St. Petersburg, Russia. By its terms, Russia relinquished its claims to western North American coast south of parallel 54°40’ north to US but retained rights to trade in that area.
28 Feb 1825 Anglo-Russian Convention▲
The United Kingdom and the Russian Empire signed the Treaty of Saint Petersburg, officially the Convention Concerning the Limits of Their Respective Possessions on the Northwest Coast of America and the Navigation of the Pacific Ocean. The treaty defined the boundary between Russian America and British North America as longitude 141° west except in south where it followed the coastal mountains from 56° north to 54°40’ north.