South America 1889: Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil
On 15 November 1889, rebelling troops under Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca seized control of the government in Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Empire of Brazil, and proclaimed a republic. After releasing news of the proclamation the following day, the coup-leaders deposed and banished aging Emperor Pedro II.
13 May 1888 Lei Áurea▲
The Brazilian government adopted the Lei Áurea (Golden Law), abolishing slavery in Brazil. The law was signed into effect by Princess Imperial Isabel, who was acting as regent while Emperor Pedro II was in Europe.
9 Sep 1888 Annexation of Easter Island▲
Acting under the authority of the Chilean Ministry of Colonization, Captain Policarpo Toro landed at Hanga Roa, Easter Island, and, on 9 September 1888, persuaded native leaders to sign an agreement to cede the island to the government of Chile while reserving their rights and privileges as chiefs. Toro then took possession of the island in the name of Chile, flying the flags of Chile and Rapa Nui on the same mast.
10 May 1889 Treaty of Quirno Costa-Vaca Guzmán▲
Argentine minister Norberto Quirno Costa and the Bolivian envoy Santiago Vaca Guzmán signed a secret treaty in Buenos Aires to settle outstanding disputes between their two countries. By the terms of the agreement, Argentina renounced its claims on Tarija; in exchange Bolivia ceded parts of the Puna de Atacama to Argentina. The treaty was ratified 1893.
15–16 Nov 1889 Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil▲
At dawn on 15 November 1889, 2,500 Brazilian troops under Marshall Deodoro da Fonseca revolted at São Cristóvão in the north of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Empire of Brazil, and entered the city to seize the government. Emperor Pedro II arrived from Petrópolis that afternoon, preparing to cooperate with the coup leaders; however they disregarded him and declared a republic. That night the official proclamation of the Republic of the United States of Brazil was drafted, being announced to the Brazilian people the following day. Informed of the announcement, the deposed Emperor departed for exile in Europe on the 17th.