South America 1922: Salomón–Lozano Treaty
In 1922, Colombia and Peru signed the Salomón–Lozano Treaty to resolve their long-standing border dispute. However, Peru—which had been pressured by the US to accept the treaty—was unhappy with giving up the Amazonian port of Leticia, and factions in the country would continue to contest the agreement for another 12 years. Ecuador, on the other hand, was disturbed by the treaty, as the extensive territory that Peru had gained clearly threatened its own claims.
Sep 1918–?? 1919 Spanish Flu in South America▲
The first recorded cases of the 1918 influenza pandemic in South America appear to have been in Lima in July–September. The second, more serious wave of the pandemic, hit a Brazilian medical mission in French Senegal that September; the first cases in Brazil would be reported the same month. Ultimately the virus killed over 35,000 in Brazil (including former president Rodrigues Alves), 3,000 in Colombia, 25,000 in Venezuela, 15–30,000 in Argentina, over 40,000 in Chile, and many thousands in Peru and Bolivia.
11 Nov 1918 Armistice of Compiègne▲
At 5am Paris time, Germany signed an armistice with the Allies in railway carriage No. 2419 D at Compiègne, France, to end its involvement in World War I. The armistice went into effect at 11am and, although not a formal surrender, demanded that the Germans withdraw their troops to behind their own borders, renounce the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, release all prisoners, promise to pay reparations, and surrender their fleet and materials.
30 Nov 1920 End of Mexican Revolution▲
Following a successful military campaign, General Álvaro Obregón was inaugurated as President of Mexico, bringing an end to the Mexican Revolution.
20 Apr 1921 Thomson-Urrutia Treaty▲
The United States ratified the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty with Colombia. By the terms of the treaty, the US paid Colombia 25 million dollars in return for Colombia’s recognition of Panama’s independence. Although the agreement had been negotiated and signed by both countries on 6 April 1914 and ratified by Colombia on 9 June of that year, political opposition due to the imperialist nature of the deal and the advent of World War I meant that it was not until 1921 that a modified version of the treaty was ratified in the US. Colombia would ratify the revised version on 13 October 1921.
13 Jun 1921–4 Feb 1922 Republic of Central America▲
On 19 January 1921, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras signed a Pact of Union in San José, Costa Rica, to form a second Federation of Central America. The Federation was declared at Tegucigalpa, Honduras, in June, by which time Costa Rica had rejected the pact. In October it was renamed as the Republic of Central America, but would only last a few more months. Guatemala left in January 1922, followed by El Salvador and Honduras early the next month.
18 Jan 1922 Federal District of Brazil▲
On 18 January 1922, President Epitácio Pessoa of Brazil issued Decree 4494, setting aside an area in the east of the state of Goiás for the future federal capital of Brazil—to be called Brasília ever since the idea of a capital in the interior was first proposed in 1823. A caravan led by Goiás railroad director Baldwin Ernesto de Almeida engineer immediately set out, and, on 7 September, laid a foundation stone on Centenary Hill, nine kilometers from Planaltina. Brasília itself would eventually be founded 38 years later, in 1960.
24 Mar 1922 Salomón–Lozano Treaty▲
Representatives of Colombia and Peru signed the United States-mediated Salomón–Lozano Treaty, finally settling their long-standing border dispute and establishing the Putumayo River as the boundary between the two countries. The treaty also ceded the Amazonian port of Leticia—a Peruvian settlement—to Colombia, contributing to its unpopularity in Peru; indeed, it was only in December 1927 that the Peruvian Congress would finally ratify the agreement and Peruvian President Augusto Leguía would be overthrown soon after withdrawing from Leticia in 1930. The treaty alarmed Ecuador, which saw Peruvian claims surrounding its eastern frontier confirmed.