South America 1891: Second Chilean Civil War
Political disputes between the President of Chile and his Congress erupted into civil war in 1891, with the Chilean Army supporting the President and the Chilean Navy supporting Congress. After an eight-month conflict, the Navy prevailed - in part through its control of the nitrate-rich north - and installed a new government.
26–29 Jul 1890 Revolution of the Park▲
Members of the Civic Union (which later became the Radical Civic Union) led by General Manuel Campos mounted an uprising of 1,300 troops in Buenos Aires's Artillery Park in an attempt to overthrow Argentine President Miguel Juárez Celman. Although Celman responded by leaving the city for Rosario, loyalist troops quickly attacked the rebels and more than 1,000 people were killed in the ensuing night of fighting. Campos requested a truce at dawn the next day (27 July), surrendering two days later. Nonetheless, the revolution discredited Celman, who resigned on 6 August.
1 Jan–18 Sep 1891 Second Chilean Civil War▲
When President José Manuel Balmaceda of Chile extended the governmental budget despite its rejection by the Chilean Congress, Congress declared the President deposed, placing the Chilean Navy under the command of Commodore Jorge Montt on 6 January. The following day, the Navy mutinied at Valparaíso in favor of Congress, traveling north to seize the important nitrate port of Iquique. After establishing its power in the north, the Congressionalists forces invaded the south in July, decisively defeating Balmaceda's troops at Placilla on 28 August. Two days later the Congressionalists entered Santiago, forcing Balmaceda to take refuge in the Argentine embassy, where he killed himself in September.
16 Mar 1891 Spanish Arbitral Award▲
Maria Christina of Austria, Queen Regent of Spain, issued the Award in the Question of Boundaries between the Republic of Colombia and the United States of Venezuela, to resolve the various boundary disputes between Colombia and Venezuela. Spain's arbitration was to be final according to the Treaty of Arosemena-Guzman of 1881. Following the award, Colombia and Venezuela began demarcating their shared border in 1900, referring to the Swiss Federal Council to resolve remaining problems in 1922.