South America 1870: Victory of the Triple Alliance
After the Brazilian capture of Asunción in 1869, Paraguayan President Solano López fled to the interior where he fought on until he and much of his remaining government were killed in battle at Cerro Corá in March 1870. At the cost of some 400,000 dead - including between 50% and 90% of Paraguay’s male population - the Paraguayan War was at an end.
Patagonia was regarded as terra nullius by Britain and France until 1881 (and thus shown as a separate state in most maps of the period). Their main concern, shared with the United States, was to prevent any nation restricting navigation through the Straits of Magellan.
15 Aug 1869 Paraguayan Triumvirate▲
The fall of President Solano López led to a power vacuum in war-torn Paraguay and the rise of competing domestic factions. In response to popular pressure, the Allied occupation force established a provisional government in Asunción on 15 August 1869, installing a triumvirate of Carlos Loizaga, Jose Diaz de Bedoya, and Cirilo Antonio Rivarola. to ostensibly run the country. Despite Allied backing, the triumvirate soon collapsed, with Bedoya resigning in May 1870 and Loizaga in August.
1 Mar 1870 Battle of Cerro Corá▲
A Brazilian cavalry detachment under General José Antônio Correia da Câmara encountered Paraguayan President Solano López’s camp by the Aquidabán River near Cerro Corá in northern Paraguay. Outnumbering the 416-strong Paraguayan forces ten to one, the Brazilians massacred their opponents, with Paraguay’s vice president, cabinet ministers, and remaining military officers all dying in the rout. López himself was surrounded by cavalrymen and lanced in the abdomen; escaping this predicament, he fled to the river, only to be shot dead when he still refused to surrender.
11 Apr 1870-6 Mar 1871 First Jordanist Rebellion▲
On 11 April 1870, the governor of Entre Ríos province, Argentina, was assassinated; three days later, General Ricardo López Jordán - an open advocate of revolution - was proclaimed the new governor. Argentine President Domingo Sarmineto refused to recognize Jordán’s governorship, sending in troops to restore order. Although being repeatedly bested by the better trained and armed regular soldiers, Jordán and his followers fought on for some 10 months by repeatedly evading their opponents before being forced to flee to Brazil.
20 Jun 1870 Allied agreement with Paraguay▲
Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay signed a preliminary accord ending the War of the Triple Alliance. The war had killed some 400,000 people, including between 50% and 90% of Paraguay’s adult male population. By the terms of the truce, and in accordance with the Treaty of the Triple Alliance, Paraguay would surrender its disputed territorial claims to Brazil and Argentina; however, due to mutual hostility, each of the two nations would in the end sign separate peaces with Paraguay.