Political map of South American nations 15 November 1889 (Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil): On 15 November 1889, rebelling troops under Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca seized control of the government in Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Empire of Brazil, and proclaimed a republic (Proclamation of the Republic (Brazil)). After releasing news of the proclamation the following day, the coup-leaders deposed and banished aging Emperor Pedro II (Pedro II of Brazil).