Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 04 Apr 1949 (American Superpower: North Atlantic Treaty), showing the following events: Greek Civil War; Truman Doctrine announced; Red Scare in US; Costa Rican Civil War; OAS Charter signed; U.S. Congress passes Marshall Aid Act, contributing $5.3 billion for European recovery; Soviet Union stop land and water communications between Berlin and the West; Newfoundland Act; North Atlantic Treaty.

North Atlantic Treaty

American Superpower

North America 1949.0404

North Atlantic Treaty

America in World War II, the Cold War and today (4 April 1949)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

World War II left the United States and the Soviet Union as the dominant powers in Europe. Relations between the two began to deteriorate almost immediately, especially after US concerns over the Soviet installment of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe prompted President Truman to embark on a policy of "containment" by aiding the non-Communist regimes which surrounded the Soviet bloc. As this new "Cold War" heated up, the US and its European allies signed the North Atlantic Treaty, formally creating the NATO alliance to counter any potential Soviet attack.

Main Events

Greek Civil War

Civil War in Greece between Western-backed government and Communists

Truman Doctrine announced

In an address to US Congress, President Harry Truman insists on aiding Greece and Turkey as part of a policy of containment in face of the threat of Soviet/Communist expansion

Red Scare in US

United States governmental organizations, including the House Un-American Activities Committee and the FBI, encouraged by Senator Joseph McCarthy, crack down on alleged Communist infiltration across the country

Costa Rican Civil War

In response to President Teodoro Picado's annulment of presidential elections in Costa Rica, the rebel National Liberation Army of José Figueres rises against the government. In a short but bloody war, the government is overthrown and Figueres takes over at the head of a provisional government junta, which will abolish the military and restore democracy after one and a half years.

OAS Charter signed

The Charter of Organization of American States is drawn up and signed at the Pan-American conference meeting at Bogota, Columbia, by the United States and the independent nations of South and Central America.

U.S. Congress passes Marshall Aid Act, contributing $5.3 billion for European recovery

Soviet Union stop land and water communications between Berlin and the West

Newfoundland Act

After a 1948 referendum in Newfoundland narrowly supported union with Canada, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Act 1949 - later renamed the Newfoundland Act - on 23 March 1949. Eight days later, at midnight on 31 March, Newfoundland and its dependency of Labrador joined Canada as its tenth province, Newfoundland. In return, Canada took over much of Newfoundland's infrastructure and assumed responsibility for its debt.

North Atlantic Treaty

The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington DC, creating a formal alliance - the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO - between Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, and the United States. The treaty, primarily directed against the Soviet Union, committed each member state to consider any armed attack against another member state, in Europe or North America, to be an attack against them all.

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