South America 1865
When its war with Brazil began in December 1864, Paraguay swiftly overran southern Mato Grosso. However, to reach its Uruguayan ...
South America 1866
Chincha Islands War
In 1864 Spain occupied Peru's Chincha Islands following a diplomatic dispute between the two countries. Spain's increased presence ...
South America 1867
Invasion of Paraguay
In early 1866 the Triple Alliance of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay defeated the last Paraguayan forces in Argentina, successfully crossing ...
South America 1869
Fall of Asunción
In late 1867 Brazilian and Argentine forces converged on the Paraguayan Fortress of Humaitá, capturing it in July the following ...
South America 1870
Victory of the Triple Alliance
After the Brazilian capture of Asunción in 1869, Paraguayan President Solano López fled to the interior where he fought on ...
South America 1874
Argentine Civil Wars
The reunification of Argentina in 1861 did not bring stability to the country, which continued to suffer from military coups ...
South America 1876
Truncation of Paraguay
Following its defeat by Brazil and Argentina in 1870, Paraguay remained under foreign occupation for over 6 years. The victorious ...
South America 1879
Conquest of the Desert
Through much of the 19th century, the Argentine Republic had maintained an uneasy existence with the tribal peoples of the ...
South America 1880
War of the Pacific
In February 1879 Chile had seized Antofagasta following a dispute with Bolivia. Peru sided with Bolivia, only to be defeated ...
South America 1881
Partition of Patagonia
When the War of the Pacific broke out in 1879, the Argentinians declared neutrality but remained sympathetic to Bolivia and ...
South America 1889
Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil
On 15 November 1889, rebelling troops under Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca seized control of the government in Rio de Janeiro ...
South America 1891
Second Chilean Civil War
Political disputes between the President of Chile and his Congress erupted into civil war in 1891, with the Chilean Army ...
South America 1895
Venezuela and Nicaragua Crises
In 1894, Nicaragua annexed the Mosquito Reserve, violating a previous treaty with Great Britain. In response, the British occupied Corinto ...
South America 1903
Second Venezuela Crisis
Following Venezuela's refusal to pay its foreign debts, Britain, Germany, and Italy blockaded the country in late 1902, seizing ...
South America 1908
Rio Branco's Treaties
The scramble for resources, especially rubber, in the South American interior in the late 19th and early 20th centuries saw ...
South America 1918
South America in the Great War
When World War I broke out in Europe, the German East Asia Squadron attempted to reach the Atlantic via the ...
North America 1944
America in World War II
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the United States, bringing its U-boat campaign to the ...
South America 1945
South America in World War II
Brazil was the only South American country to send troops abroad during World War II and, despite US pressure, only ...
South America 1948
Following the end of World War II, suspicion and hostility grew between the United States and the Soviet Union. In ...
North America 1949
North Atlantic Treaty
World War II left the United States and the Soviet Union as the dominant powers in Europe. Relations between the ...