the Arctic 1818
Treaty of 1818
Fighting between Britain and the United States came to an end in 1815, with the Allies defeating Napoleon later that ...
the Arctic 1825
Britain and the United States followed their 1818 treaty by defining their boundaries with Spain and Russia. The Spanish, with ...
the Arctic 1837
By the 1830s, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
North America 1837
In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
North America 1838
Fragmentation of Central America
A united Central America had broken away from Mexico in 1823, but remained unstable. In 1837, revolution erupted in Guatemala ...
North America 1842
Conflict with the Comanche did not stop Texas from pursuing its vast territorial claims against Mexico. In 1841 the Texians ...
North America 1843
By the early 1840s, American settlers, arriving overland in increasing numbers along what became known as the Oregon Trail, were ...
the Arctic 1846
Following the 1837 rebellions, the British merged the two Canadas into a single autonomous province and set about resolving their ...
North America 1846
War with Mexico encouraged President Polk to settle the Oregon dispute between the US and Britain. In June both countries ...
North America 1849
California Gold Rush
Just days before the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in California ...
the Arctic 1850
Search for Franklin
In 1845 the renowned British explorer Sir John Franklin had set off to find the Northwest Passage, but by winter ...
the Arctic 1854
Opening of Japan
Across the Pacific, Japan had kept itself closed off from the world since the 17th century, restricting its contact with ...
North America 1858
Mexican Reform War
In Mexico, the antagonism between the reform-minded Liberal Party and the Conservatives, backed by landowners and the Catholic Church, erupted ...
the Arctic 1859
Russian expeditions and settlers had been infiltrating China's Amur region since the late 1840s. After the Crimean War exposed ...
North America 1859
Raid on Harpers Ferry
The 1850s conflict in the US over slavery was not limited to Kansas. In 1859, the abolitionist John Brown and ...
the Arctic 1862
Gold Rushes in the Pacific Northwest
For some time after the Oregon Treaty, Britain's naval base on Vancouver Island was its only major presence in ...
North America 1866
Red Cloud's War
Following the Civil War, the US government moved to confine the Indians of the west to reservations, buying up their ...
the Arctic 1867
While the British worried about the Americans in British Columbia, the Russians had come to accept that they could not ...
North America 1867
US expansionism, its purchase of Alaska and its alleged support of Irish Republican Fenian raiders encouraged the British to listen ...
the Arctic 1869
In Japan, the instability which had followed the arrival of Perry's ships had ultimately led to the termination of ...