North America 1843
By the early 1840s, American settlers, arriving overland in increasing numbers along what became known as the Oregon Trail, were ...
South America 1864
Outbreak of the Paraguayan War
In 1864 Brazil intervened in Uruguay in support of the liberal Colorado Party, prompting Uruguay's governing Blanco Party to ...
South America 1866
Chincha Islands War
In 1864 Spain occupied Peru's Chincha Islands following a diplomatic dispute between the two countries. Spain's increased presence ...
South America 1867
Invasion of Paraguay
In early 1866 the Triple Alliance of Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay defeated the last Paraguayan forces in Argentina, successfully crossing ...
South America 1879
Conquest of the Desert
Through much of the 19th century, the Argentine Republic had maintained an uneasy existence with the tribal peoples of the ...
South America 1880
War of the Pacific
In February 1879 Chile had seized Antofagasta following a dispute with Bolivia. Peru sided with Bolivia, only to be defeated ...
South America 1881
Partition of Patagonia
When the War of the Pacific broke out in 1879, the Argentinians declared neutrality but remained sympathetic to Bolivia and ...
South America 1883
End of the War of the Pacific
By 1883, Chile was the clear victor in the War of the Pacific, occupying all the important Peruvian and Bolivian ...
South America 1914
Opening of the Panama Canal
After ten years construction, the Panama Canal was opened in 1914, connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific via the Caribbean ...
South America 1922
In 1922, Colombia and Peru signed the Salomón–Lozano Treaty to resolve their long-standing border dispute. However, Peru - which had ...
South America 1930
Already unstable, South America was hit hard by the Great Depression, with the global demand for the raw materials that ...
South America 1941
In July 1941, while the eyes of the world were focused on Hitler's invasion of Russia, the long-standing border ...
South America 1942
Brazil enters World War II
On 7 December 1941, Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, bringing the United States into World War II. Brazil almost immediately began ...
North America 1944
America in World War II
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the United States, bringing its U-boat campaign to the ...
South America 1945
South America in World War II
Brazil was the only South American country to send troops abroad during World War II and, despite US pressure, only ...
South America 1948
Following the end of World War II, suspicion and hostility grew between the United States and the Soviet Union. In ...
North America 1949
North Atlantic Treaty
World War II left the United States and the Soviet Union as the dominant powers in Europe. Relations between the ...
South America 1962
Cold War reaches Latin America
Less than a month after the signing of the Rio Pact in 1948 - and while the Organization of American States ...
South America 1979
In response to the guerrilla movements of the 1960s and 1970s, the right-wing governments of southern South America organized Operation ...
South America 1982
In 1982, partially to mobilize patriotic support in the face of its dwindling popularity, Argentina's military junta invaded the ...