South America 1879
Conquest of the Desert
Through much of the 19th century, the Argentine Republic had maintained an uneasy existence with the tribal peoples of the ...
South America 1880
War of the Pacific
In February 1879 Chile had seized Antofagasta following a dispute with Bolivia. Peru sided with Bolivia, only to be defeated ...
South America 1883
End of the War of the Pacific
By 1883, Chile was the clear victor in the War of the Pacific, occupying all the important Peruvian and Bolivian ...
South America 1885
In April 1885 the United States occupied the Colombian state of Panama to protect American interests in the face of ...
South America 1887
When gold was discovered in the Guianas in the early 1880s, thousands of prospectors flocked to the region. Taking advantage ...
South America 1889
Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil
On 15 November 1889, rebelling troops under Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca seized control of the government in Rio de Janeiro ...
South America 1895
Venezuela and Nicaragua Crises
In 1894, Nicaragua annexed the Mosquito Reserve, violating a previous treaty with Great Britain. In response, the British occupied Corinto ...
South America 1899
Republic of Acre
During the 1890s, thousands of Brazilian workers traveled up the Amazon to the Bolivian-claimed region of Acre in search of ...
South America 1900
Thousand Days' War
Long unstable, Colombia collapsed into civil war in 1899, when the Liberal Party revolted against the ruling Conservative Party's ...
South America 1903
Second Venezuela Crisis
Following Venezuela's refusal to pay its foreign debts, Britain, Germany, and Italy blockaded the country in late 1902, seizing ...
South America 1903
In 1902, the United States purchased the remnants of the failed French attempt to build a canal through Panama, then ...
South America 1908
Rio Branco's Treaties
The scramble for resources, especially rubber, in the South American interior in the late 19th and early 20th centuries saw ...
South America 1914
Opening of the Panama Canal
After ten years construction, the Panama Canal was opened in 1914, connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific via the Caribbean ...
South America 1933
Bolivia and Paraguay were both left land-locked by the 19th century's wars in South America. Having lost substantial territory ...
South America 1935
Paraguayan Chaco Offensive
The first year of the Chaco War favored the Bolivians, but when their offensive collapsed in late 1933, Paraguay seized ...
South America 1939
Declaration of Panama
In 1939, World War II broke out in Europe. In response, the United States and the other neutral nations of ...
North America 1944
America in World War II
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Germany declared war on the United States, bringing its U-boat campaign to the ...
South America 1945
South America in World War II
Brazil was the only South American country to send troops abroad during World War II and, despite US pressure, only ...
South America 1948
Following the end of World War II, suspicion and hostility grew between the United States and the Soviet Union. In ...
North America 1949
North Atlantic Treaty
World War II left the United States and the Soviet Union as the dominant powers in Europe. Relations between the ...