Australasia 1832: Musket Wars
The arrival of muskets and other European goods in the early 19th century disrupted the power balance between the already fractious Māori tribes of New Zealand. The populous northern tribes of Ngāpuhi and, some years later, Waikato mounted raids across the North Island, driving smaller tribes to seek refuge in the south. In the 1820s the Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha formed an alliance of these refugee tribes, leading them on to invade the South Island in 1829–32. Tribal infighting prevented substantial long-term conquests, although, by depopulating key locations, the wars opened up New Zealand for later European settlement.
Nov 1829–Jun 1832 Invasion of Te Waipounamu▲
In the summer of 1829/30 the Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha left Kapiti Island, off Cook Strait in the North Island of New Zealand, with his allies to raid the South Island and conquer the Marlborough Sounds. In October 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain Stewart of the British trading brig Elizabeth to take him to Akaroa Harbour, where he and his followers emerged to seize or kill hundreds of Kāi Tahu in a surprise attack. A full scale invasion of Kāi Tahu territory followed in 1831–32, with Te Rauparaha conquering most of the northern half of the South Island.
7 Oct 1830–1842 Removal of Tasmanian Aborigines▲
In October–November 1830 the Black Line—consisting of 2,200 soldiers, convicts, and settlers—swept the British colony of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) in an attempt to drive the Aboriginal population into a reserve in the Tasman Peninsula. Although the action itself failed, peaceful overtures by humanitarian George Augustus Robinson persuaded almost 300 Tasmanian Aborigines—the bulk of the surviving population—to surrender in the early 1830s, with the last doing so in 1842. They were soon relocated to Flinders Island, where disease swiftly reduced their numbers to 46 by 1847.
Aug 1831–Aug 1852 Reunification of Tonga▲
In 1831 Tāufaʻāhau (also known by his family name, Tupou), the ambitious chief of Haʻapai in Tonga, adopted Christianity and was baptized as King George of Tonga. When a fellow Christian and ally Fīnau ʻUlukālala III, chief of Vavaʻu, died in 1833, he bequeathed his islands to Tupou. The following year Tupou landed on the fractious island of Tongatapu, proclaiming himself King again in 1845 and completing its conquest in 1852.