Australasia 1950: United States of Indonesia
Dutch efforts to reconquer Indonesia in 1947–49 brought condemnation by the United Nations. Backing down, the Netherlands accepted the independence of the United States of Indonesia - a federation which included both the nationalist Republic of Indonesia and 15 states established by the Dutch. However the Republic quickly began to assert control over the other states, provoking the south Maluku Islands to declare independence.
19 Dec 1948–5 Jan 1949 Operation Kraai▲
The Netherlands conducted Operation Kraai, their second military offensive against the Republic of Indonesia. They successfully captured Yogyakarta, the Republic’s temporary capital, and seizes President Sukarno. The action was internationally condemned, with the United States threatening to suspend Marshall Plan aid to the Dutch and the United Nations passing a resolution demanding the reinstatement of the Republican government, prompting the Dutch to announce a ceasefire at the end of the year.
1 Nov 1949 Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference▲
The Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference is held at the Hague between representatives of the Netherlands, the Republic of Indonesia, and the BFO (an assembly representing the other states of Indonesia). The Dutch agree to transfer sovereignty over the archipelago to a new federation, the United States of Indonesia. The status of Western New Guinea is left unresolved, to be negotiated within a year of the transfer of sovereignty to Indonesia.
27 Dec 1949 United States of Indonesia▲
Following the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference, the Netherlands recognizes the independence of the Republic of United States of Indonesia (RUSI). The RUSI is a federation whose People’s Representative Council consists of 50 representatives from the Republic of Indonesia and 100 from the various states according to their populations.
25 Apr 1950 Republic of South Maluku▲
Distrusting the Javanese and Muslim-dominated Republic of Indonesia, the largely Protestant and pro-Dutch South Moluccans—who have long contributed forces to the Royal Dutch East Indies Army (KNIL)—declare the independence of the Republic of South Maluku in Ambon and Seram.