Political map of Australia, New Zealand & the Southwest Pacific 01 June 1832 (Musket Wars): The arrival of muskets and other European goods in the early 19th century disrupted the power balance between the already fractious Māori tribes of New Zealand (Musket Wars). The populous northern tribes of Ngāpuhi and, some years later, Waikato (Waikato Tainui) mounted raids across the North Island, driving smaller tribes to seek refuge in the south. In the 1820s the Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha formed an alliance of these refugee tribes, leading them on to invade the South Island in 1829–32. Tribal infighting prevented substantial long-term conquests, although, by depopulating key locations, the wars opened up New Zealand for later European settlement.