Boxer Protocol

The Rise of Japan

East Asia 1901.0907

Boxer Protocol

The Rise of Japan, the Xinhai Revolution, and World War I in Asia (7 September 1901)

Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific

In August 1900, the Allies captured Peking, defeating the remnants of the Boxer Rebellion over the following year. Peace was concluded with the Boxer Protocol, in which the Allies forced China to pay a large indemnity and allow continued foreign military access to Peking as a guard against future uprisings.

Main Events

Battle of Peking

After defeating Boxer and Imperial Chinese forces in several encounters, the troops of the Eight-Nation Alliance reached the gates of Peking at about 3:00am on 14 August. By 4:30pm, the Americans had broken through to the international Legation Quarter, relieving the two-month Boxer siege. The Allies entered the Forbidden Palace the next day, prompting the Dowager Empress Cixi and her followers to flee to Xian in disguise.

Federation of Australia

The Constitution of Australia comes into force, uniting the British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia as states of the new Commonwealth of Australia. As a compromise between Sydney and Melbourne, Parliament is to sit in Melbourne until a federal capital is constructed at a site in southern New South Wales.

Fall of First Philippine Republic

A United States expedition led by General Frederick Funston and aided by Filipino Macabebe Scouts, captured President Emilio Aguinaldo of the Philippine Republic in his headquarters in Palanan, Isabela. In April, Aguinaldo issued a Proclamation of Formal Surrender to the United States, ending the First Philippine Republic.

Boxer Protocol

The Chinese Empire signed the Boxer Protocol with the Eight-Nation Alliance (Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands, bringing an end to the Boxer Rebellion. The terms demanded that China pay an indemnity of 450 million taels of fine silver over 39 years at 4% interest, allow foreign countries to base their troops in Peking (Beijing), destroy the Taku Forts (leaving the sea approach to Tianjin undefended), prohibit anti-foreign organizations, and apologize to Germany for the assassination of Baron von Ketteler.

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