the Arctic 1854
Opening of Japan
Across the Pacific, Japan had kept itself closed off from the world since the 17th century, restricting its contact with ...
East Asia 1901
In August 1900, the Allies captured Peking, defeating the remnants of the Boxer Rebellion over the following year. Peace was ...
East Asia 1902
During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia had occupied Manchuria. Suspicious of Russian intentions in the region and wary of its alliance ...
East Asia 1904
Attack on Port Arthur
The 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance freed Japan from the fear of war with a coalition of European powers. Emboldened, they moved ...
East Asia 1905
Japan swiftly overran Korea and southern Manchuria, capturing Port Arthur after a prolonged siege. In an attempt to gain naval ...
East Asia 1907
The Russo-Japanese War had threatened to embroil France and Britain, the allies of the two combatants. To preserve the peace ...
East Asia 1911
China had suffered endless humiliations since the mid 19th century, with the once powerful Qing dynasty unable to hold back ...
East Asia 1914
Republic of China
The Chinese revolutionary leader Sun Yatsen declared a republic in January 1912, but to avoid bloodshed he came to a ...
East Asia 1915
Japan's Twenty-One Demands
When World War I broke out in Europe in 1914, Japan swiftly seized German possessions in Asia and the Pacific ...
East Asia 1916
China's Warlord Era Begins
Misjudging national sentiment, Yuan Shikai declared himself Emperor in December 1915. It was a huge blunder. Almost immediately the southern ...
East Asia 1917
Yuan Shikai's successor, Duan Qirui, failed to retake the south or rein in the growing power of rival factions ...
East Asia 1918
In the chaos of the Russian Revolution, Czechoslovak troops seized control of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The Allies swiftly moved to ...
East Asia 1919
May Fourth Movement
World War I ended with Allied victory in November 1918. At the ensuing Paris Peace Conference, Japan was granted the ...
East Asia 1920
Creation of the Far Eastern Republic
By early 1920, the Soviets had effectively won the Russian Civil War. However, as opposing regimes collapsed across the Russian ...
East Asia 1920
Since 1917, Duan Qirui and his Anhui clique had dominated the Chinese government. However Duan's dependence on Japan had ...
East Asia 1921
Russia in Mongolia
Ungern von Sternberg, a Russian general fleeing the Soviet advance, took advantage of Chinese weakness to occupy Mongolia. His rule ...
East Asia 1922
Washington Naval Conference
Growing tensions between the U.S., Britain, and Japan over fleet construction led to the Washington Naval Conference, the world ...
East Asia 1922
The Washington Treaties were welcomed by reformists in Japan who saw danger both in a policy of continuous intervention in ...
East Asia 1924
By 1924, the Zhili clique seemed poised to reunify China under its rule. However it was not to be. In ...
the Arctic 1925
Soviet-Japanese Peace Treaty
The Japanese withdrew from the Russian mainland in October 1922, allowing the Soviets to annex the Far Eastern Republic just ...