East Asia 1933: Tanggu Truce

Neither the League of Nations or the Nationalist Chinese were prepared to accept the creation of Manchukuo, so Japan pressed on. In 1933, it expanded into Jehol and backed Chinese collaborators in Inner Mongolia. By May, Chiang Kaishek was prepared to sign the Tanggu Truce, agreeing to a demilitarized zone in northern China and effectively acknowledging the existence of Manchukuo.

Notes

Treaty Ports

Treaty ports were towns opened to foreign trade by unequal treaties in China. Foreigners operating within treaty ports enjoyed extraterritoriality, being subject to their home country’s laws. Unlike concessions such as Hong Kong, these territories were not directly leased by the foreign powers and did not have sizable foreign garrisons.

Treaty ports are not shown in the maps after the 1911 Chinese Revolution in order to give a clearer picture of the chaos in China itself and as by that point their numbers had stabilized. After the revolution, some of the smaller ports were phased out while the others became less important as the situation in China meant that only the concessions could provide foreigners with security. Most, however, still continued on into the 1940s when the Japanese entry into World War II and foreign agreements with China brought them to an end.

See this map for treaty ports in 1907, when the system was at its peak.

Yangtze River

By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858), foreign vessels including warships had the right to free navigation on the Yangtze River. In practical terms, this right extended only as far as Yichang until 1900, when advances in steam navigation allowed access as far inland as Chongqing.

Main Events

10 Apr-Oct 1932 Uprising in western Mongolia, crushed with Soviet support

Uprising in western Mongolia, crushed with Soviet supportin wikipedia

23 Feb-12 Mar 1933 Japan occupies Jehol

Japan occupies Jeholin wikipedia

27 Mar 1933 Japan withdraws from League of Nations

Japan withdraws from League of Nationsin wikipedia

29 Apr 1933 Japanese backed General Liu Guitang invades Chahar

Japanese backed General Liu Guitang invades Chahar

in wikipedia

31 May 1933 Tanggu Truce

Ends fighting between Japan and Nationalist China in northeast Chinain wikipedia