Northern Africa 68 AD: Macer’s Rebellion
In 68 AD Vindex and Galba led the western Roman provinces in revolt against Emperor Nero. They were supported by the African legions under Lucius Clodius Macer, who cut off the vital African grain supply to Rome. However, when Galba supplanted Nero, Macer refused to relinquish his command and was killed.
60–61 AD Nero’s Nile expedition▲
In around 60 AD the Roman emperor Nero ordered two centurions to lead an expedition to explore the Nile river and attempt to locate its source. Assisted by the King of Kush, the Romans traveled up the White Nile as far as huge, apparently limitless marshes—the Sudd of South Sudan—which they found could only be penetrated by small one-man boats. It’s uncertain as to how far they advanced from here, but some of them carried on to an immense waterfall—possibly Murchison Falls in Uganda.
??–1 Jun 68 AD Vindex’s Rebellion▲
In early 68 AD Gaius Julius Vindex, Roman governor of Gallia Lugdunensis and a scion of a noble Gallic family, conspired to proclaim Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as emperor in place of Nero. Despite the 70-year-old Galba’s reluctance, Vindex led the governors of Gaul and Britain in revolt soon after. However, Lucius Verginius Rufus, commander of the Rhine legions, rejected the move, defeating Vindex outside Vesontio (Besançon) and compelling him to commit suicide in early June.
Apr–8 Jun 68 AD Galba’s Rebellion▲
When Vindex led the Gallic provinces in revolt against Nero on behalf of Servius Sulpicius Galba, the 70-year-old Galba, fearing Nero would retaliate regardless, followed suit, leading the Spanish provinces in revolt in April 70 AD. Despite Vindex’s defeat a month or so later, the Praetorian Guards decided to support his claim and on 8 June were joined by the Senate in declaring Nero deposed.
May–Oct 68 AD Macer’s Rebellion▲
In May 68 AD Lucius Clodius Macer, legatus of the legion Legio III Augusta in Africa, rose in revolt against Nero, cutting off the vital African grain supply to Rome. Refusing to relinquish his command when Galba was proclaimed emperor, Macer was killed at the latter’s behest by the procurator Trebonius Garutianus.