Northern Africa 1912: Treaty of Fez
The Agadir Crisis was resolved in late 1911 when Germany agreed to accept French control of Morocco in return for a substantial cession of territory from French Equatorial Africa to German Kamerun. In March 1912 the Treaty of Fez established a French protectorate in Morocco, with another treaty later that year recognizing Spanish claims in the north and south of the country.
4 Nov 1911 Neukamerun▲
On 7 July 1911 Germany entered into negotiations with France to resolve the Agadir Crisis, agreeing to support a French protectorate over Morocco in return for “compensation” in the French Congo region and the safeguarding of German economic interests in Morocco. Initial German demands were for the whole of the French Congo from the Sangha River to the sea, but these were reduced after a warning from Britain. A final agreement was reached on 4 November, with the French ceding 275,000 square km (Neukamerun) to German Kamerun, giving the Germans access to the Congo River. As some compensation, the French gained a small stretch of land southeast of Lake Chad.
1–23 Dec 1911 Russian intervention in Persia▲
After the second Russian ultimatum to the Persian government is rejected by the Majlis (parliament), Russian troops who have already assembled in the Persian port of Anzali proceed to march on Qazvin, within striking distance of Tehran. Meanwhile fighting breaks out with Russian forces in Tabriz. In response, the Persian cabinet resigns but the Majlis stands firm.
7 Mar 1912 Liberian Loan Agreement▲
With his country facing rising debts and territorial encroachment by the neighboring French and British colonies, President Arthur Barclay of Liberia obtained a 40-year international loan of US$1.7 million. As part of the conditions of the loan, the Liberian government had to agree to four Western powers (Britain, France, Germany, and the United States) controlling its revenues for the next 14 years, until 1926.
30 Mar 1912 Treaty of Fez▲
In March 1912 Sultan Abd al-Hafid of Morocco, his kingdom by now overrun by French forces, signed the Treaty of Fez with the French diplomat Eugène Regnault. The treaty gave France authority over non-Moroccan citizens and effectively made Morocco a French protectorate, with the exception of Tangier and areas reserved for Spain. In August Abd al-Hafid abdicated in favor of his half-brother Yusef, departing for exile in France and then Tangier.