Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 28 Dec 1835 (Successors of New Spain: Second Seminole War), showing the following events: Chicakasaw removal; Force Bill; Plan of Cuernavaca; Emancipation Day; Zacatecas Rebellion of 1835; Battle of Gonzales; Dade Massacre.

Second Seminole War

Successors of New Spain

North America 1835.1228

Second Seminole War

Texas Revolution, Latin American independence (28 December 1835)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

The Seminole of Florida were the most independent of the Indian peoples marked for relocation to the west, having been at war with the US as late as 1823. Rather than accept forcible transfer, they chose to fight again - moving out of their reservation in late 1835 to attack soldiers and settlements across Florida Territory. It took over a year for the US Army to gain the upper hand over the elusive Seminole, with the last bands holding out in the Everglades until 1842.

Main Events

Chicakasaw removal

The Chickasaw Nation signed the Treaty of Pontotoc with the United States, agreeing to move west to Indian Territory. Unlike the other tribes being removed, the Chickasaw held out for $3 million in financial compensation from the US for their lands east of the Mississippi. They then paid the Choctaw $530,000 for land in Indian Territory, beginning their move in 1837.

Force Bill

President Andrew Jackson of the United States of America signed the Force Bill, which authorized him to use troops to enforce federal law in the state of South Carolina. Along with the Compromise Tariff of 1833, this brought an end to the Nullification Crisis in which South Carolina had declared the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 unconstitutional and refused to collect them, threatening the stability of the Union.

Plan of Cuernavaca

Ignacio Echeverria and Jose Mariano Campos issued a declaration from Cuernavaca, Mexican Republic, against reform measures by the liberal administration of Vice President Valentin Gomez Farias. In the following days, towns across central Mexico announced their support of the Plan of Cuernavaca. In response, President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, who was probably orchestrating this all along, ordered the dissolution of Congress and declared his adoption of the Plan. This allowed him to form a new Catholic, centralist, conservative government.

Emancipation Day

In accordance with the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, slavery came to an end in all territories of the British Empire, excluding those territories under the control of the East India Company. Slaves over the age of six were not immediately freed, instead they were scheduled to remain in servitude as 'apprentices' for another 4-6 years.

Zacatecas Rebellion of 1835

The Mexican state of Zacatecas rebelled against the central government in response to President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's orders to disarm the civic militia. Santa Anna arrived in person to suppress the revolt, defeating the rebels at the Battle of Zacatecas.

Battle of Gonzales

Texian rebels ambushed an 80-man Mexican cavalry patrol under Captain Francisco de Castañeda, who had been sent to remove a cannon from the town of Gonzales, in Mexican Texas. The skirmish led to open revolution in Texas, with all the major towns falling to the rebels by December 11.

Dade Massacre

Two US companies of 110 troops led by Major Francis Langhorne Dade were traveling from Fort Brooke, Florida Territory, along the King Highway to Fort King, when they were attacked by 180 Seminole. Major Dade was killed by the first shot, with 106 other soldiers dying in the following 4 hour battle for the loss of 3 Seminole. The success encouraged the Seminole to raid plantations across Florida and marked the start of the Second Seminole War.

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