North America 1832
Trail of Tears
In 1830, there were still five large American Indian groups living as semi-independent nations east of the Mississippi: the Cherokee ...
North America 1835
Second Seminole War
The Seminole of Florida were the most independent of the Indian peoples marked for relocation to the west, having been ...
North America 1836
By the 1830s the Mexican border region of Texas had become dominated by settlers from the neighboring US. When, in ...
North America 1837
In the north, the British colonies of Upper and Lower Canada were growing in population but still found themselves dominated ...
North America 1838
Fragmentation of Central America
A united Central America had broken away from Mexico in 1823, but remained unstable. In 1837, revolution erupted in Guatemala ...
North America 1840
The Comanche had taken advantage of Mexican weakness to gain control of the trade routes crossing the southern Great Plains ...
North America 1866
Red Cloud's War
Following the Civil War, the US government moved to confine the Indians of the west to reservations, buying up their ...
North America 1876
Great Sioux War
In 1874, gold was discovered in the Black Hills, part of the Great Sioux Reservation. When attempts by the US ...
North America 1882
The 1849 Mexican-American War had placed the Apache and other tribes of the southwest under US jurisdiction. Over the following ...
North America 1885
In the Canadian northwest, tensions between the mixed ancestry Métis and the encroaching government led to a rebellion under Louis ...
North America 1890
Wounded Knee Massacre
By 1890, American Indian resistance in the western United States had been crushed and settlers and railways had closed the ...