Anglo-French Agreement on Siam

The Rise of Japan

East Asia 1907.0408

Anglo-French Agreement on Siam

The Rise of Japan, the Spanish-American War, and the Boxer Rebellion (8 April 1907)

Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific

The Russo-Japanese War had threatened to embroil France and Britain, the allies of the two combatants. To preserve the peace between them, they signed the Entente Cordiale. In Asia, this led to the division of Siam into spheres of influence in 1907 and the subsequent expansion of French Indochina and British Malaya at Siam's expense.

Main Events

Treaty of Portsmouth

The Japanese and Russian Empires signed the Treaty of Portsmouth at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in the US state of Maine, bringing an end to the Russo-Japanese War. As a result of the treaty, Russia ceded southern Sakhalin, its leases on Port Arthur, and the southern part of the Chinese Eastern Railway - the South Manchurian Railway - to Japan. US President Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in the negotiations, winning the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.

Eulsa Protection Treaty

With Japanese troops encircling the Korean imperial palace in Hanseong (Seoul), representatives of the Empire of Japan presented the Empire of Korea with a treaty formalizing Japanese control over Korea's foreign policy and its influence over Korea's international trade. Although neither the Korean Emperor Gojong nor his Prime Minister accepted the treaty, five Korean ministers agreed to sign, which was sufficient for the Japanese to deem it effective.

Anglo-Chinese Convention

The Qing dynasty and the British Empire signed the Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet, reaffirming the Chinese possession of Tibet. The British agreed not to interfere in Tibet, while China confirmed that it would not permit any other foreign state to do so. This Convention succeeded the 1904 Treaty of Lhasa between Tibet and Britain.

Anglo-French Agreement on Siam

Following the terms of the Entente Cordiale, the French Republic and the United Kingdom established spheres of influence in the Kingdom of Siam. The British recognized French influence to the east of the River Menam basin; in turn, the French recognized British influence to the west of the Menam basin. Both parties disclaimed any idea of annexing Siamese territory.

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