Washington Naval Conference

American Empire

North America 1921.1112

Washington Naval Conference

The Spanish-American War, the Banana Wars, the Mexican Revolution, World War I and the Great Depression (12 November 1921)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

Following the War, the US and Japan began expanding and modernizing their fleets. To avoid an arms race between these countries and Britain, still the world's biggest naval power, the US arranged the Washington Naval Conference, the world's first disarmament conference. The participants agreed to limit their fleet sizes, maintain the status quo in the Pacific, and guarantee China's independence, while Britain also ended its alliance with Japan.

Main Events

American Expeditionary Force Siberia

The last troops of American Expeditionary Force Siberia departed for United States on 1 April 1920.

Obregón's revolt

Álvaro Obregón led a revolt against Mexican President Venustiano Carranza.

Carranza flees Mexico City

Mexican President Venustiano Carranza abandoned the capital on 7 May for Veracruz. He was assassinated en route in Puebla two weeks later on 21 May. On 1 June, Congress appointed Adolfo de la Huerta as interim President, with elections to be held on 26 October.

End of Mexican Revolution

Following a successful military campaign, General Álvaro Obregón was inaugurated as President of Mexico, bringing an end to the Mexican Revolution.

Thomson-Urrutia Treaty

The United States ratified the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty with Colombia. By the terms of the treaty, the US paid Colombia 25 million dollars in return for Colombia's recognition of Panama's independence. Although the agreement had been negotiated and signed by both countries on 6 April 1914 and ratified by Colombia on 9 June of that year, political opposition due to the imperialist nature of the deal and the advent of World War I meant that it was not until 1921 that a modified version of the treaty was ratified in the US. Colombia would ratify the revised version on 13 October 1921.

Republic of Central America

On 19 January 1921, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras signed a Pact of Union in San José, Costa Rica, to form a second Federation of Central America. The Federation was declared at Tegucigalpa, Honduras, in June, by which time Costa Rica had rejected the pact. In October it was renamed as the Republic of Central America, but would only last a few more months. Guatemala left in January 1922, followed by El Salvador and Honduras early the next month.

Washington Naval Conference

The Washington Naval Conference was attended by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal. The parties agreed to limit fleet sizes, maintain the status quo in the Pacific, and guarantee China's independence.

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