China's Nanjing Decade
East Asia 1933.0531
The Northern Expedition, early Chinese Civil War, and Japanese incursions into China (31 May 1933)
Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific
Neither the League of Nations or the Nationalist Chinese were prepared to accept the creation of Manchukuo, so Japan pressed on. In 1933, it expanded into Jehol and backed Chinese collaborators in Inner Mongolia. By May, Chiang Kaishek was prepared to sign the Tanggu Truce, agreeing to a demilitarized zone in northern China and effectively acknowledging the existence of Manchukuo.
Treaty ports were towns opened to foreign trade by unequal treaties in China. Foreigners operating within treaty ports enjoyed extraterritoriality, being subject to their home country's laws. Unlike concessions such as Hong Kong, these territories were not directly leased by the foreign powers and did not have sizable foreign garrisons.
Treaty ports are not shown in the maps after the 1911 Chinese Revolution in order to give a clearer picture of the chaos in China itself and as by that point their numbers had stabilized. After the revolution, some of the smaller ports were phased out while the others became less important as the situation in China meant that only the concessions could provide foreigners with security. Most, however, still continued on into the 1940s when the Japanese entry into World War II and foreign agreements with China brought them to an end.
See this map for treaty ports in 1907, when the system was at its peak.
By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858), foreign vessels including warships had the right to free navigation on the Yangtze River. In practical terms, this right extended only as far as Yichang until 1900, when advances in steam navigation allowed access as far inland as Chongqing.
Uprising in western Mongolia, crushed with Soviet support
Japan occupies Jehol
Japan withdraws from League of Nations
Japanese backed General Liu Guitang invades Chahar
Ends fighting between Japan and Nationalist China in northeast China