Washington Naval Conference

Warlords and Revolutionaries

East Asia 1922.0206

Washington Naval Conference

The Xinhai Revolution, World War I in Asia, the Warlord Era in China, the Russian Revolution and the Siberian Intervention (6 February 1922)

Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific

Growing tensions between the U.S., Britain, and Japan over fleet construction led to the Washington Naval Conference, the world's first disarmament conference. The participants agreed to limit their fleet sizes, maintain the status quo in the Pacific, and guarantee China's independence. Britain also ended the Anglo-Japanese Alliance while Japan agreed to restore Kiautschou Bay to China.


Warlord China

From the Zhili-Anhui War (1920) to the Nationalist recapture of Beijing (1928), control over China fluctuated as various warlords fought for power. The foreign powers handled this situation by regarding whichever warlords controlled Beijing as the legitimate government of China, even though these warlords often had no influence outside the city.

To depict this situation, this atlas shows the recognized government of China as warlord-controlled rather than as an independent entity, with its size changing depending on how much authority the government had outside of Beijing. However the actual recognized borders of China itself did not change during this period.

Main Events

Soviets take Urga, Mongolia, from Ungern von Sternberg.

Washington Naval Conference

Washington Naval Conference attended by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal; parties agree to limit fleet sizes, maintain status quo in Pacific, and guarantee China's independence

Sun Yatsen launches northern expedition, invading southern Hunan.

Washington Conference decrees that Japan return Kiautschou Bay (Qingdao) and Qingdao-Jinan Railway to China.

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