The Rise of Japan
East Asia 1902.013
The Rise of Japan, the Xinhai Revolution, and World War I in Asia (30 January 1902)
Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific
During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia had occupied Manchuria. Suspicious of Russian intentions in the region and wary of its alliance with France, Britain and Japan signed a defensive agreement, promising to come to each other's aid should either of them get involved in a war with two or more powers.
Allied withdrawal from China
By 17 September 1901, the Eight-Nation Alliance of Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United States had completed its withdrawal from Peking (Beijing) following the imposition of the Boxer Protocol on the Chinese Empire. In August 1902, they restored Tientsin (Tianjin) to China, ending their Provisional Government there. Remaining Allied forces withdrew from Shanghai later that year.
The United Kingdom and the Empire of Japan signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in London, promising that they will support each other if either country became involved in a war with more than one Great Power. The Alliance was announced on 12 February 1902 and marked the end of Britain's Splendid Isolation.