Late Tsarist Russia
Late Tsarist Russia (4 September 1905)
Historical Map of Russia & the former Soviet Union
Dissatisfaction with the Tsarist government and its handling of the war with Japan resulted in unrest across Russia. Desperate for peace, the Russians accepted the loss of Port Arthur, southern Sakhalin, and the South Manchurian Railway.
1905 Russian Revolution
On Sunday, 22 January (later known as Bloody Sunday), troops guarding the Winter Palace in St Petersburg, Russian Empire, open fire on the demonstrators attempting to deliver a petition to Tsar Nicholas II, causing hundreds of deaths. The event inspires strikes and protests across the Empire, bringing the Russian economy to its knees. On 30 October the Tsar agrees to grant reforms and the revolution slowly winds down, although revolts continue into December.
In response to growing dissatisfaction over Swedish rule, the Norwegian Storting (parliament) voted unanimously to dissolve Norway's union with Sweden. The act was ratified by a plebiscite on 13 August. After initial hesitation, Sweden formally recognized Norway's independence on 26 October when King Oscar II of Sweden renounced his claim to the Norwegian throne.
Mutiny on the battleship Potemkin while moored off Odessa
Invasion of Sakhalin
Two parties totaling 14,000 Japanese troops landed between Aniwa and Korsakov on Sakhalin island, meeting little opposition. The Japanese moved on to capture Korsakov, defeating 2000 Russians, before heading north to capture most of southern Sakhalin by 16 July. On 24 July, they landed in northern Sakhalin where they forced the 5000 Russian defenders to surrender.