Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 21 Dec 1866 (Closing the Frontier: Red Cloud's War), showing the following events: Battle of Chihuahua; French withdrawal from Mexico; Niagara Raid; Red Cloud's War breaks out; Reconstruction; United British Columbia colonies.

Red Cloud's War

Closing the Frontier

North America 1866.1221

Red Cloud's War

The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (21 December 1866)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

Following the Civil War, the US government moved to confine the Indians of the west to reservations, buying up their land to cater for the expansion of the white population into the interior. In 1866, the Army started building forts along the Bozeman Trail, a gold-mining route which crossed unceded Indian land, provoking a conflict with Lakota Sioux led by Red Cloud. After numerous clashes, the government backed down, abandoning the Trail to avoid disrupting its work on the Pacific Railroad.

Main Events

Battle of Chihuahua

Mexican Republicans re-occupied Chihuahua, expelling French and Imperial forces after just two hours of fighting.

French withdrawal from Mexico

On 22 January 1866, French Emperor Napoleon III - facing increasing domestic and international pressure to end the French campaign in Mexico - declared his Mexican intervention a success and began preparations for troop withdrawal. In late May and early June, French units were recalled from across Mexico to reassemble in Mexico City and embark from Veracruz. By February 1867, most of the remaining French, Austrian, and Belgian forces had departed for Europe, leaving Emperor Maximilian of Mexico greatly weakened.

Niagara Raid

Throughout the mid-19th century, millions of Irish emigrated to the United States, where some began organizing in support of an independent Irish Republic back home. One of these groups was the Fenian Brotherhood, who led raids into Canada in 1866, winning victories at Ridgeway and Fort Erie before withdrawing.

Red Cloud's War breaks out

During the 1860s, the Great Sioux Nation began seizing territory belonging to the Crow people, in violation of the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty. The Crow appealed to the United States, who were expanding their military presence along the nearby Bozeman Trail, leading to outright war.

Reconstruction

Following the end of the Civil War, states that had seceded from the Union were placed under military occupation without the full rights of US States. Under this Reconstruction program, states were readmitted to the union once federal troops and monitors had sufficiently overseen the establishment of civil rights and prevented the risk of a further uprising.

United British Columbia colonies

The British colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia were united to form the United Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, generally still called the Colony of British Columbia. Both colonies had been laboring under huge debts, largely accumulated by the completion of extensive infrastructure to service the huge population influx and exacerbated by the decline in gold revenues.

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