Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 21 Dec 1866 (Closing the Frontier: Red Cloud's War), showing the following events: Republicans retake Chihuahua; Under U.S. pressure, France begins withdrawing its troops from Mexico; Niagara Raid; Red Cloud's War breaks out; Southern states readmitted to Union; United British Columbia colonies.

Red Cloud's War

Closing the Frontier

North America 1866.1221

Red Cloud's War

The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (21 December 1866)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

Following the Civil War, the US government moved to confine the Indians of the west to reservations, buying up their land to cater for the expansion of the white population into the interior. In 1866, the Army started building forts along the Bozeman Trail, a gold-mining route which crossed unceded Indian land, provoking a conflict with Lakota Sioux led by Red Cloud. After numerous clashes, the government backed down, abandoning the Trail to avoid disrupting its work on the Pacific Railroad.

Main Events

Republicans retake Chihuahua

Mexican Republicans occupy Chihuahua, expelling French and Imperial forces

Under U.S. pressure, France begins withdrawing its troops from Mexico

Niagara Raid

Fenians raid Canada, winning victories at Ridgeway and Fort Erie before withdrawing

Red Cloud's War breaks out

Warriors under Lakota chief Red Cloud begin attacks on white soldiers and civilians around Bozeman Trail and Powder River

Southern states readmitted to Union

Former Confederate States are readmitted to the Union one by one after period of military occupation

United British Columbia colonies

The British colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia were united to form the United Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, generally still called the Colony of British Columbia. Both colonies had been laboring under huge debts, largely accumulated by the completion of extensive infrastructure to service the huge population influx and exacerbated by the decline in gold revenues.

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