Sino-Soviet Conflict

China's Nanjing Decade

East Asia 1929.112

Sino-Soviet Conflict

The Northern Expedition, early Chinese Civil War, and Japanese incursions into China (20 November 1929)

Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific

Encouraged by the Chinese Nationalist government, the Fengtian clique seized the part Soviet-administered Chinese Eastern Railway in 1929. The Soviets responded with a two-pronged invasion, swiftly forcing the Chinese to come to terms.

Notes

Treaty Ports

Treaty ports were towns opened to foreign trade by unequal treaties in China. Foreigners operating within treaty ports enjoyed extraterritoriality, being subject to their home country's laws. Unlike concessions such as Hong Kong, these territories were not directly leased by the foreign powers and did not have sizable foreign garrisons.

Treaty ports are not shown in the maps after the 1911 Chinese Revolution in order to give a clearer picture of the chaos in China itself and as by that point their numbers had stabilized. After the revolution, some of the smaller ports were phased out while the others became less important as the situation in China meant that only the concessions could provide foreigners with security. Most, however, still continued on into the 1940s when the Japanese entry into World War II and foreign agreements with China brought them to an end.

See this map for treaty ports in 1907, when the system was at its peak.

Yangtze River

By the terms of the Treaty of Tientsin (1858), foreign vessels including warships had the right to free navigation on the Yangtze River. In practical terms, this right extended only as far as Yichang until 1900, when advances in steam navigation allowed access as far inland as Chongqing.

Main Events

Chiang Kaishek defeats Guangxi clique

Fengtian clique seizes Chinese Eastern Railway

Soviet Union invades Manchuria

Guominjun denounces Chiang Kaishek

Wall Street Crash

Between opening on 24 October 1929 ("Black Thursday") and close on 29 October ("Black Tuesday"), the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped in value from 305.85 to 230.07 in the most devastating stock market crash in United States history. The crash would bring an abrupt end to the Roaring Twenties and signal the beginning of the Great Depression.

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