Shanghai Incident

Warlords and Revolutionaries

East Asia 1925.053

Shanghai Incident

The Xinhai Revolution, World War I in Asia, the Warlord Era in China, the Russian Revolution and the Siberian Intervention (30 May 1925)

Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific

Feng Yuxiang's Guominjun and his Fengtian allies divided northern China between them, setting up former leader Duan Qirui as their puppet president of China. To the anger of the Chinese people, the foreign powers recognized this new regime over Sun Yatsen's populist Kuomintang in the south. Public resentment only increased with Sun Yatsen's death just a few months later. Matters came to a head when the foreign-run municipal police opened fire on protesters in Shanghai, sparking anti-foreign riots across China.


Warlord China

From the Zhili-Anhui War (1920) to the Nationalist recapture of Beijing (1928), control over China fluctuated as various warlords fought for power. The foreign powers handled this situation by regarding whichever warlords controlled Beijing as the legitimate government of China, even though these warlords often had no influence outside the city.

To depict this situation, this atlas shows the recognized government of China as warlord-controlled rather than as an independent entity, with its size changing depending on how much authority the government had outside of Beijing. However the actual recognized borders of China itself did not change during this period.

Main Events

Duan Qirui appointed Chief Executive of Republic of China

Soviet-Japanese Peace Treaty

Anglo-French Treaties with Siam

Britain and France agree to restoration of full sovereignty to Siam.

Sun Yatsen dies.

Major labor and anti-imperialist protests begin after Shanghai Municipal Police open fire on Chinese protestors.

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