Japanese Withdrawal

Warlords and Revolutionaries

East Asia 1922.123

Japanese Withdrawal

The Warlord Era in China, the Russian Revolution and the Siberian Intervention (30 December 1922)

Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific

The Washington Treaties were welcomed by reformists in Japan who saw danger both in a policy of continuous intervention in China and Russia and the distrust it provoked in America and Britain. Over the course of 1922, Japan brought its troops home and began improving its relations with its neighbors.


Warlord China

From the Zhili-Anhui War (1920) to the Nationalist recapture of Beijing (1928), control over China fluctuated as various warlords fought for power. The foreign powers handled this situation by regarding whichever warlords controlled Beijing as the legitimate government of China, even though these warlords often had no influence outside the city.

To depict this situation, this atlas shows the recognized government of China as warlord-controlled rather than as an independent entity, with its size changing depending on how much authority the government had outside of Beijing. However the actual recognized borders of China itself did not change during this period.

Main Events

First Zhili-Fengtian War

Sun Yatsen flees Guangdong after Chen Jiongming turns against him.

Japanese troops withdraw from Vladivostok.

Japanese troops withdraw from Manchuria.

Soviet Russia annexes Far Eastern Republic.

Japanese withdraw from Kiautschou Bay/Qingdao

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