The Russian Civil War: The White Phase
The Russian Civil War: The Bolsheviks against the White Movement (3 February 1919)
Historical Map of Russia & the former Soviet Union
The end of the First World War had slowly led to the withdrawal of German troops. Finally free from pressure on their western front, the Soviets were able to launch counter-offensives. In the west, they began retaking the lands they had lost at the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. In the east, they pushed into Central Asia in an attempt to reunite with their isolated comrades in Turkestan.