Closing the Frontier
North America 1867.0701
The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (1 July 1867)
Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean
US expansionism, its purchase of Alaska and its alleged support of Irish Republican Fenian raiders encouraged the British to listen to demands for self-government and unification from its remaining North American colonies. In 1867, they assented to the formation of the Dominion of Canada by uniting the British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
Nebraska becomes US state
In 1866, the Nebraska Territory approved a constitution for statehood. However, admission to the union was delayed for a year due to Nebraska's whites-only voting provision. In 1867, the provision was removed and Nebraska was admitted. Universal male suffrage would go into effect nationwide in 1870.
United States Secretary of State William H. Seward signed the Treaty concerning the Cession of the Russian Possessions in North America by his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias to the United States of America (now commonly referred to as the 'Alaska Purchase'), agreeing to the US purchase of Russian America from the Russian government for $7.2 million, or about 2 cents per acre. The Senate ratified the treaty on 9 April 1867, with the House approving the appropriation of the money needed on 14 July 1868.
Siege of Mexico City
Republican forces under Porfirio Díaz - supported by the 3,000-strong American Legion of Honor - arrived on the outskirts of Mexico City, occupying the outlying towns of Chapultepec, Tacubaya, and Guadalupe. On 18 June 1867, following news of the capture of Emperor Maximilian, the French and Austrian troops defending the capital declared their neutrality and entered into negotiations with the Republicans. With the loss of their European allies and facing starvation, the Imperial defenders surrendered the capital on 20 June; Díaz entered the city the following day.
Execution of Maximilian
Maximilian had defended Mexico City against the advice of Napoleon, and ensured that he would be captured and court-martialed. The Republic of Mexico executed Emperor Maximilian I by firing squad on 19 June 1867.
Under the terms of the British North America Act of 1867, the Dominion of Canada was formed by the unification of the United Province of Canada with the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The act reestablished Ontario and Quebec as separate provinces, this time as part of the new dominion.