Warlords and Revolutionaries
East Asia 1920.0723
The Warlord Era in China, the Russian Revolution and the Siberian Intervention (23 July 1920)
Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific
Since 1917, Duan Qirui and his Anhui clique had dominated the Chinese government. However Duan's dependence on Japan had made him unpopular with the people and his attempts to reunify China had aroused fear in rival factions. The most powerful of these factions were the Zhili and Fengtian cliques, who allied to overthrow him in 1920.
From the Zhili-Anhui War (1920) to the Nationalist recapture of Beijing (1928), control over China fluctuated as various warlords fought for power. The foreign powers handled this situation by regarding whichever warlords controlled Beijing as the legitimate government of China, even though these warlords often had no influence outside the city.
To depict this situation, this atlas shows the recognized government of China as warlord-controlled rather than as an independent entity, with its size changing depending on how much authority the government had outside of Beijing. However the actual recognized borders of China itself did not change during this period.
Japan occupies northern Sakhalin
Outbreak of Zhili-Anhui War
The Zhili clique denounces the Anhui clique, which currently dominates the government of the unstable Republic of China, in the widely circulated Paoting-fu Telegram. The denouncement has been signed by a number of generals from both the Zhili and Fengtian cliques, and brings the rivalry between Zhili and Anhui into the open in the Zhili-Anhui War.