Creation of the Soviet Union

The Russian Civil War: The Green Phase

Russia 1922.123

Creation of the Soviet Union

The Russian Civil War: The Bolsheviks against the Green Movement, Anarchists, and Japanese intervention (30 December 1922)

Historical Map of Russia & the former Soviet Union

With foreign troops gone and revolt crushed everywhere except for the sparsely inhabited northeast, the Soviets were ready for the next step. On December 30, 1922, the First Congress of the Soviets of the USSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR, which saw Soviet Russia united with the other Soviet republics in the west to form a single federal state, the Soviet Union.

Main Events

Defeat of the Basmachi movement

Enver Pasha, leader of the rebel Basmachi movement (Bek) in the Ferghana Valley (in what will become Tajikistan), is killed in a cavalry charge against the invading Red Army of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. His successor, Selim Pasha, attempts to continue the struggle but is finally forced to flee to Afghanistan in 1923.

Japanese troops withdraw from Vladivostok.

Soviet Russia annexes Far Eastern Republic.

Treaty on the Creation of the USSR

After approval by delegates from the Russian SFSR, the Transcaucasian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, and the Byelorussian SSR on 29 December, the 1st Congress of Soviets of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) signs the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the USSR, uniting all four republics as the USSR or Soviet Union.

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