Allied Intervention

The Russian Civil War: The White Phase

Russia 1918.0901

Allied Intervention

The Russian Civil War: The Bolsheviks against the White Movement (1 September 1918)

Historical Map of Russia & the former Soviet Union

In June, in response to German movements into Finland, the British had begun landing in northern Russia. After the Czechoslovak victories in Siberia, the Allies saw both an opportunity to bring Russia back into the war against Germany and an obligation to come to the support of the Czechoslovaks. In August, a joint Allied force set up a White provisional government in Vladivostok. This was followed by a British move into the Trans Caspian region and Japanese occupation of the Chinese Eastern Railway.

Main Events

Malleson mission

Some 500 British Indian troops under General Wilfrid Malleson from Mashhad, Persia, cross into Russia to support the Transcaspian Government in Ashkhabad against invading Bolsheviks.

Archangel landing

British troops landed in Archangel (Arkhangelsk), northern Russia, with the intention of recovering Allied war materiel (which had been supplied to the Russians while they were still involved in the war) and resurrecting the Eastern Front by linking up with the Czechoslovak Legion and supporting anti-Bolshevik forces. Upon arrival they discovered that the war materiel had already been moved up the Dvina River by the retreating Bolsheviks. Over the following month, the British were joined in Archangel by French and American forces.

Seizure of Chinese Eastern Railway

Vladivostok landing

As the first move of the Allied Siberian Intervention, 3000 troops of the American Expeditionary Force Siberia arrived in Vladivostok. The troops helped relieve the Czechoslovak Legion, which had already seized control of the town, as well as guard part of the railway north to Nikolsk-Ussuriski. The US forces in Vladivostok were joined by the Japanese, British and Canadians, Italians, and French.

Czechoslovak columns join up at Chita after clearing the south Baikal tunnel

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