Late Tsarist Russia
Late Tsarist Russia (1 September 1912)
Historical Map of Russia & the former Soviet Union
In early 1912, the weak and corrupt government of the Chinese Empire was overthrown and a republic declared. However, the new republic was unable to stop China's collapse. In the north, Russia took interest as Tuva and Mongolia broke away.
The United Kingdom and the Russian Empire signed the Anglo-Russian Entente in St Petersburg, clarifying their respective influences in south-central Asia. Persia was divided into spheres of influence, with a Russian sphere in the north, a British sphere in the southeast, and a neutral zone in between. Afghanistan was recognized as under British influence and both countries agreed not to interfere in Tibet.
In response to the Chinese Revolution, the Mongols of Outer Mongolia - at the time part of the Chinese Empire - made a push for independence by establishing the Provisional Government of Khalkha. In the following days, the Mongols announced the end of Qing rule, formally installing their spiritual leader - the Jebtsundamba Khutuktu - as Bogd Khan of the new Mongolian state on 29 December.
Abdication of Puyi
Following the declaration of the Republic of China in Nanjing, Sun Yatsen agreed to resign in favor of Yuan Shikai - Prime Minister of the Chinese Empire - should Yuan support Emperor Puyi's abdication. As the emperor was only six, Yuan pressured the regent - Empress Dowager Longyu - to acquiesce to his demands. On 12 February 1912, Puyi abdicated his throne, bringing an end to both Qing Dynasty rule and the Chinese Empire. By agreement, Puyi retained his imperial title and was allowed to remain in the Forbidden City and Summer Palace.
End of Qing rule in Tuva
With the collapse of Chinese rule in Mongolia, Gombo-Dorzhu - paramount chief of Tannu Uriankhai (Tuva) - requested Russian protection. Not wishing to prematurely antagonize the Chinese government, the Russians did not respond.