Closing the Frontier
North America 1885.0412
The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (12 April 1885)
Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean
In the Canadian northwest, tensions between the mixed ancestry Métis and the encroaching government led to a rebellion under Louis Riel in Saskatchewan district. The rebels initial successes encouraged the neighboring Cree to join the revolt, but government forces ultimately prevailed and Riel, who had also led the 1869 Red River Rebellion, was tried and executed.
Treaty of Mexico City
Following a preliminary agreement signed in New York City on 12 August 1882 under the arbitration of the United States, Guatemala and Mexico signed a final boundary treaty in Mexico City on 27 September. By the terms of the treaty, Guatemala renounced its claim to the territory of Chiapas and agreed to the partition of Soconusco. The Suchiate River was set as the boundary between the two countries, with measurement and demarcation work completed in 1902.
Geronimo hunted down
The Sierra Madre Expedition under US General George Crook tracked down Geronimo in northern Mexico and negotiated his surrender at Canyon de los Embudos.
Riel's rebellion begins
Louis Riel proclaimed himself president of the Provisional Government of Saskatchewan, starting a Métis rebellion against government of Canada.
Cree loot Battleford
Cree under Poundmaker and Big Bear attacked Battleford, Saskatchewan, and besieged its fort, beginning a general revolt.
North-West Rebellion crushed
After initial defeats, Canadian authorities mobilized and crushed the North-West Rebellion.