North America 1855.1206
Mexican-American War, Oregon dispute (6 December 1855)
Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean
In 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act created the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening them up for settlement and granting them the right to choose whether or not to allow slavery through popular vote. The result was an influx of pro- and anti-slavery elements into Kansas in a bid to determine which way the vote would go, with both sides often resorting to violence. The dispute would not be resolved until 1859, when a final referendum confirmed Kansas' status as a free state.
Starting in Ayutla, Guerrero, Mexican Republic, a liberal revolution forces dictator Santa Anna to resign from office
Convention of Kanagawa
After returning to Japan with ten ships and 1600 men in February 1854, Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States Navy successfully pressured the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan to sign a treaty with the United States. By the terms of this Japanese-US Treaty of Peace and Amity - also known as the Convention of Kanagawa - Japan agreed to open the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade, ending its 220-year-old policy of national seclusion (sakoku). The treaty also ensured the safety of American castaways and established the position of an American consul in Japan.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act breaks up the vast unorganized territory in the western United States, establishing the Kansas and Nebraska Territories, and repeals the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing new settlers to choose whether to introduce slavery
Bombardment of Greytown
United States sloop-of-war USS Cyane, commanded by George H. Hollins, bombards Greytown, British protectorate of the Miskito Kingdom, in response to attempts by the government of Greytown to charge taxes and duties on ships using it as a port to access the Nicaragua Route to California. The town is bombarded, occupied by marines, and destroyed. Despite the destruction, there are no casualties and the US refuses to apologize the attack.
The United States, under the pro-Southern Democratic administration of President Franklin Pierce, offers to purchase Cuba from Spain, implying that war would be declared should Spain refuse; the demand is withdrawn in response to vocal opposition in both the Northern states and Europe
Walker's Conquest of Nicaragua
Filibuster William Walker and some 300 followers intervene in a civil war between the Legitimist Party and the Democratic Party in the Republic of Nicaragua; by supporting the Democrats, Walker gains control of the country, ruling through provisional President Patricio Rivas
Following the influx of prospectors into Washington Territory, United States, war breaks out between the US government and tribes of the Northwest Plateau, including the Yakima, Walla Walla, Umatilla, Nez Perce and Cayuse; ultimately the US Army prevails and most of the tribes are forced onto reservations
Anti-slavery and pro-slavery settlers converge on newly opened Kansas Territory, United States, engaging in numerous violent confrontations as they rally to determine whether Kansas will outlaw or allow slavery