Political map of China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia 1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China): By late 1949, the Nationalist (History of the Republic of China) forces were collapsing everywhere and the Communists (Communist Party of China) had all but won the Civil War (Chinese Civil War). On October 1, Mao Zedong (Mao Zedong) proclaimed the People's Republic of China (People's Republic of China) in the new capital of Beijing (Beijing).