Political map of China, Japan, Korea, and Mongolia 8 December 1949 (Nationalist Taiwan): With the Communists victorious across China, about 2 million Nationalist Chinese (Nationalist China) fled to the offshore island of Taiwan (Taiwan). On December 8, Chiang Kaishek (Chiang Kaishek) made the Taiwanese city of Taipei (Taipei) the temporary capital of the Republic of China (Republic of China) but refused to give up his claim on the mainland.