East Asia 1949: Communist Victory in North China
With their defeat at Xuzhou, the Nationalists were forced to abandon northern China and fall back on Nanjing and the Yangtze River. Chiang Kaishek resigned and his replacement, Li Zongren, attempted to negotiate peace with Mao.
29 Nov 1948–31 Jan 1949 Pingjin Campaign▲
In the Pingjin Campaign, the Chinese Communist People’s Liberation Army conquered Hebei province, capturing the key cities of Zhangjiakou and Tianjin from the Nationalists. On 21 January 1949, the isolated Nationalist garrison in Beiping (now Beijing) agreed to surrender, with the People’s Liberation Army entering the city ten days later. The Communist victory brought an end to Nationalist power in the North China Plain
1 Jan 1949 Ceasefire in Kashmir▲
Following Indian military successes and a United Nations resolution proposing a ceasefire on 13 August 1948, India and Pakistan agreed to stop fighting in Kashmir. The ceasefire established a line of control in Kashmir, giving India roughly two-thirds of the territory, and brought an end to the First Indo-Pakistani War. Overall India had lost 1,500 killed and 3,500 wounded, whereas Pakistan had lost 6,000 killed and 14,000 wounded.
21 Jan 1949 Resignation of Chiang Kaishek▲
Following the Chinese Communist defeat of the Nationalists in the north, Chiang Kaishek resigned his position as President of the Republic of China. Li Zongren, Chiang’s political rival and vice-president, became acting president. Li immediately attempted to negotiate an end to the civil war, but without success.