Closing the Frontier
North America 1882.0716
The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (16 July 1882)
Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean
The 1849 Mexican-American War had placed the Apache and other tribes of the southwest under US jurisdiction. Over the following decades, they fought a series of raiding wars against the authorities in both the US and Mexico in an attempt to preserve their traditional way of life, until their last great leader, Geronimo, finally agreed to surrender in 1886.
Colorado becomes US state
The Colorado Territory was admitted to US as the state of Colorado.
Sioux and Cheyenne surrender
Sioux and Cheyenne leaders, including Dull Knife, Standing Elk, Touch the Clouds, Roman Nose and Crazy Horse, surrendered to US authorities to take up life on reservations.
Nez Perce War
The Nez Perce conducted a fighting retreat from United States forces from western Idaho to northeast Montana before finally surrendering.
St Barthelemy to France
Following referendum of 1877, Sweden returned the island of St Barthelemy to France.
Apache leader Victorio and his followers waged guerrilla war across the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, before being defeated by Mexican troops.
White River War
White River Utes were defeated by the United States Army after they massacred employees of a local Indian Agency.
Geronimo flees to Mexico
Apache leader Geronimo and 700 followers fled the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona, for Mexico.
Apache raid central Arizona
60 White Mountain Apache under Na-tio-tish clashed with police in central Arizona before being defeated at Big Dry Wash.