Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 16 Jul 1882 (Closing the Frontier: Apache Wars), showing the following events: Colorado becomes US state; Sioux and Cheyenne surrender; Nez Perce War; St Barthelemy to France; Victorio's War; White River War; Geronimo flees to Mexico; Apache raid central Arizona.

Apache Wars

Closing the Frontier

North America 1882.0716

Apache Wars

The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (16 July 1882)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

The 1849 Mexican-American War had placed the Apache and other tribes of the southwest under US jurisdiction. Over the following decades, they fought a series of raiding wars against the authorities in both the US and Mexico in an attempt to preserve their traditional way of life, until their last great leader, Geronimo, finally agreed to surrender in 1886.

Main Events

Colorado becomes US state

Colorado Territory admitted to US as state of Colorado

Sioux and Cheyenne surrender

Sioux and Cheyenne leaders, including Dull Knife, Standing Elk, Touch the Clouds, Roman Nose and Crazy Horse, surrender to US authorities to take up life on reservations

Nez Perce War

Nez Perce conduct fighting retreat from United States forces from western Idaho to northeast Montana before finally surrendering

St Barthelemy to France

Following referendum of 1877, Sweden returns island of St Barthelemy to France

Victorio's War

Apache leader Victorio and his followers wage guerrilla war across the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, before being defeated by Mexican troops

White River War

White River Utes defeated by United States Army after they massacre employees of local Indian Agency

Geronimo flees to Mexico

Apache leader Geronimo and 700 followers flee San Carlos Reservation, Arizona, for Mexico

Apache raid central Arizona

60 White Mountain Apache under Na-tio-tish clash with police in central Arizona before being defeated at Big Dry Wash

About this map