Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 16 Jul 1882 (Closing the Frontier: Apache Wars), showing the following events: Colorado becomes US state; Eisenstuck Affair; Sioux and Cheyenne surrender; Nez Perce War; St Barthelemy to France; Victorio's War; White River War; Geronimo flees to Mexico; Apache raid central Arizona.

Apache Wars

Closing the Frontier

North America 1882.0716

Apache Wars

The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (16 July 1882)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

The 1849 Mexican-American War had placed the Apache and other tribes of the southwest under US jurisdiction. Over the following decades, they fought a series of raiding wars against the authorities in both the US and Mexico in an attempt to preserve their traditional way of life, until their last great leader, Geronimo, finally agreed to surrender in 1886.

Main Events

Colorado becomes US state

The Colorado Territory was admitted to US as the state of Colorado.

Eisenstuck Affair

In October and November 1876, Paul Eisenstuck, the German imperial honorary consul in Nicaragua, and his family were attacked twice in the city of León, the second time by police officers. Germany, with the cooperation of the United States and Britain, insisted the Nicaraguan government pay compensation. When German demands were rejected, the Reich sent three warships from its East Asia squadron to Corinto; in response, the Nicaraguans backed down, paid US$30,000 in compensation, punished the perpetrators, and raised the German flag.

Sioux and Cheyenne surrender

Sioux and Cheyenne leaders, including Dull Knife, Standing Elk, Touch the Clouds, Roman Nose and Crazy Horse, surrendered to US authorities to take up life on reservations.

Nez Perce War

The Nez Perce conducted a fighting retreat from United States forces from western Idaho to northeast Montana before finally surrendering.

St Barthelemy to France

Following referendum of 1877, Sweden returned the island of St Barthelemy to France.

Victorio's War

Apache leader Victorio and his followers waged guerrilla war across the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, before being defeated by Mexican troops.

White River War

White River Utes were defeated by the United States Army after they massacred employees of a local Indian Agency.

Geronimo flees to Mexico

Apache leader Geronimo and 700 followers fled the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona, for Mexico.

Apache raid central Arizona

60 White Mountain Apache under Na-tio-tish clashed with police in central Arizona before being defeated at Big Dry Wash.

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