Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 22 Jan 1866 (Closing the Frontier: French withdrawal from Mexico), showing the following events: Lincoln assassinated; Confederacy dissolved; Johnson's May 9 Declaration; Last Confederate forces surrender; French capture Chihuahua; Napoleon declares victory in Mexico.

French withdrawal from Mexico

Closing the Frontier

North America 1866.0122

French withdrawal from Mexico

The end of the French Intervention in Mexico, Reconstruction, the foundation of Canada, the Indian Wars and the westward expansion of the United States (22 January 1866)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

The defeat of the Confederacy allowed the United States to pressure the French to end their intervention in Mexico. Napoleon III, already wary of the mounting financial costs and intractable Mexican resistance, declared victory in 1866 and proceeded to withdraw his forces. With its French backers gone, the Mexican Empire collapsed over the following year.

Main Events

Lincoln assassinated

United States President Abraham Lincoln shot by stage actor John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theatre, Washington DC

Confederacy dissolved

Jefferson Davis meets with his cabinet for last time at Washington, Georgia, and officially dissolves the Confederate Government

Johnson's May 9 Declaration

The United States President Andrew Johnson declared that armed resistance in the American Civil War was "virtually" at an end and that nations or ships still harboring fugitives would be denied entry into US ports. Confederate President Jefferson Davis was captured the following day, although it would not be until 20 August 1866 that Johnson would formally proclaim the end of the war.

Last Confederate forces surrender

Cherokee Brigadier General Stand Watie surrenders with the Confederate Indians at Fort Towson, Indian Territory

French capture Chihuahua

French and Mexican Imperial troops take city of Chihuahua, temporary capital of the Mexican Republic

Napoleon declares victory in Mexico

French Emperor Napoleon III declares the Mexican intervention a success and begins planning for his withdrawal

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