Political map of North America & the Caribbean on 17 Dec 1861 (American Civil War: Fight for Kentucky), showing the following events: First Battle of Mesilla; Confederate Territory of Arizona; Confederates invade Kentucky; Union enters Kentucky; Kentucky declares for the Union; Mosquito Reservation created; Convention of London; Union captures Port Royal; Trent Affair; Tripartite fleets reach Mexico; Spanish occupy Veracruz.

Fight for Kentucky

American Civil War

North America 1861.1217

Fight for Kentucky

American Civil War, French intervention in Mexico, Dominican Restoration War (17 December 1861)

Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean

When the Civil War broke out, Kentucky had declared neutrality. This situation lasted for over three months, until a Confederate general, acting on his own initiative, occupied Columbus. In response to this blunder, Kentucky declared for the Union, thereby opening up the War's western theater.

Main Events

First Battle of Mesilla

Confederate forces from Texas defeated local Union forces at First Battle of Mesilla, New Mexico Territory.

Confederate Territory of Arizona

Confederate forces in New Mexico Territory established the Territory of Arizona south of the 34th parallel, hoping to establish a route from which to eventually invade California.

Confederates invade Kentucky

Confederate troops under Gen. Leonidas Polk invade the hitherto neutral state of Kentucky, occupying Columbus

Union enters Kentucky

Union troops under Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant occupied Paducah, Kentucky, in response to the Confederate invasion.

Kentucky declares for the Union

On 7 September 1861, the Kentucky General Assembly passed resolution demanding the withdrawal of Confederate forces, declaring its allegiance with the Union.

Mosquito Reservation created

The former British protectorate of Mosquito Kingdom was transformed into the Mosquito Reservation under the sovereignty of Nicaragua.

Convention of London

Great Britain, France, and Spain signed Convention of London, forming a tripartite alliance to extract loan repayments from Mexico.

Union captures Port Royal

The Union blockade of the Confederacy could not have been maintained without ready access to large fuel reserves. In order to establish a harbor from which coal could be transported and stored, a United States expeditionary force successfully launched an amphibious operation to capture the Port Royal Sound of South Carolina from the Confederacy. The Union Army then marched north to capture Beaufort, using the beachhead as a staging area from which to besiege Charleston.

Trent Affair

The Union interception of the British mail packet RMS Trent carrying Confederate diplomats temporarily threatened war between the United States and Britain.

Tripartite fleets reach Mexico

British, Spanish and French fleets arrived off Veracruz, to begin pressure on Mexican government.

Spanish occupy Veracruz

Spanish forces occupied San Juan de Ulua and Veracruz, Mexico.

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