Fight for Kentucky
American Civil War
North America 1861.1217
Fight for Kentucky
American Civil War, French intervention in Mexico, Dominican Restoration War (17 December 1861)
Historical Map of North America & the Caribbean
When the Civil War broke out, Kentucky had declared neutrality. This situation lasted for over three months, until a Confederate general, acting on his own initiative, occupied Columbus. In response to this blunder, Kentucky declared for the Union, thereby opening up the War's western theater.
First Battle of Mesilla
Confederate forces from Texas defeated local Union forces at First Battle of Mesilla, New Mexico Territory.
Confederate Territory of Arizona
Confederate forces in New Mexico Territory established the Territory of Arizona south of the 34th parallel, hoping to establish a route from which to eventually invade California.
Confederates invade Kentucky
Confederate troops under Gen. Leonidas Polk invade the hitherto neutral state of Kentucky, occupying Columbus
Union enters Kentucky
Union troops under Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant occupied Paducah, Kentucky, in response to the Confederate invasion.
Kentucky declares for the Union
On 7 September 1861, the Kentucky General Assembly passed resolution demanding the withdrawal of Confederate forces, declaring its allegiance with the Union.
Mosquito Reservation created
The former British protectorate of Mosquito Kingdom was transformed into the Mosquito Reservation under the sovereignty of Nicaragua.
Convention of London
Great Britain, France, and Spain signed Convention of London, forming a tripartite alliance to extract loan repayments from Mexico.
Union captures Port Royal
The Union blockade of the Confederacy could not have been maintained without ready access to large fuel reserves. In order to establish a harbor from which coal could be transported and stored, a United States expeditionary force successfully launched an amphibious operation to capture the Port Royal Sound of South Carolina from the Confederacy. The Union Army then marched north to capture Beaufort, using the beachhead as a staging area from which to besiege Charleston.
The Union interception of the British mail packet RMS Trent carrying Confederate diplomats temporarily threatened war between the United States and Britain.
Tripartite fleets reach Mexico
British, Spanish and French fleets arrived off Veracruz, to begin pressure on Mexican government.
Spanish occupy Veracruz
Spanish forces occupied San Juan de Ulua and Veracruz, Mexico.