Long March

China's Nanjing Decade

East Asia 1935.1022

Long March

The Northern Expedition, early Chinese Civil War, and Japanese incursions into China (22 October 1935)

Historical Map of East Asia & the Western Pacific

Chiang Kaishek took advantage of the cease-fire with Japan to crack down on the Chinese Communists. In the Fifth Encirclement Campaign, he drove them from eastern China, exploiting the chase which followed to extend his influence deep into the Chinese interior. Only a fraction of the Communists survived their 'Long March' to escape Chiang, regrouping in the northwestern province of Shaanxi.

Main Events

Fifth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet destroys Chinese Communist power in Central China

Soviet invasion of Xinjiang

Volunteer Soviet troops and White Guards begin intervening in Xinjiang, China, to relieve the siege of Xinjiang's governor Shen Shicai in Urumqi by the Kuomintang-allied forces of Zhang Peiyuan and Ma Zhongying. When these troops prove unsuccessful, two brigades of about 7,000 Soviet OGPU troops invade, supported by tanks, aircraft, and artillery with mustard gas. Breaking through at Kulja and Chuguchak, they defeat Ma after several weeks battle on the frozen Tutung River outside Urumqi. A further defeat at Dawan Cheng drives Ma south to Kashgar, after which most of the Soviet forces withdraw.

Long March

Units of the Chinese Communist Party's Red Army, retreating from the Nationalist Government's Fourth Encirclement Campaign, travel from a number of Communist enclaves in the south - most notably in the their stronghold in Jiangxi province - deep into the northwest in a series of marches which will collectively become known as the Long March. As the marches progress, crossing mountains and gorges in a circuitous 9,000 km path, Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai emerge as the Communist leaders. By the time Mao reaches Yan'an Shaanxi province in October 1935, only 40,000 of an intial 300,000 party members remain.

He-Umezu Agreement between Nationalist China and Japan

Kuomintang agrees to withdraw troops and influence from Hebei

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