Political map of South & Southwest Asia 12 December 1933 (First East Turkestan Republic): In 1931 the warlord-ruled Chinese province of Xinjiang fell into civil war when the former khanate of Kumul revolted against the government (Kumul Rebellion). The neighboring Muslim Chinese of the Ma Family invaded in support of Kumul, but eventually fell out with the native Uyghur people. On 12 November 1933 the Uyghurs of southern Xinjiang declared their independence as the East Turkestan Republic (First East Turkestan Republic), but their new state would barely last five months before being crushed by the Ma.