Political map of North America & the Caribbean 9 September 1850 (Compromise of 1850): With its population booming (California Gold Rush), California wanted to join the Union as a free state (Slave and free states) - naturally antagonizing the slave states. After lengthy debate, the Compromise of 1850 was agreed upon: California would be accepted as a free state and the newly created territories of Utah and New Mexico would be allowed to vote on the issue of slavery. Texas also agreed to abandon its substantial claims in the Mexican Cession in return for the payment of its debts.