Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 27 October 2017 (Return of Nationalism): In 2016 the United Kingdom narrowly voted to leave the European Union (Brexit). This move proved to be one of the first acts in a global reaction against multinationalism; the following year, Iraqi Kurdistan voted for independence in the wake of the defeat of Daesh (Iraqi Kurdistan independence referendum, 2017) while the viability of a united Europe was further threatened when Catalonia declared its secession from Spain (Declaration of Independence of Catalonia).