Political map of Europe & the Mediterranean 17 July 2014 (Rise of Daesh): In late 2013, Daesh (the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, also called ISIS or ISIL) had emerged as the dominant group in both civil war-torn northern Syria (Syrian Civil War) and western Iraq (Anbar campaign (2013-14)). In June 2014, they invaded northern Iraq and threatened to take Baghdad (2014 Northern Iraq offensive). In July, Israel invaded Gaza (Operation Protective Edge) in response to rocket attacks, but world attention returned to Ukraine once again when a Malaysia Airlines flight was shot down over the separatist Donetsk People's Republic (Malaysia Airlines Flight 17).